巴布亞新畿內亞咖啡豆農民的困境及為何需要公平貿易 PNG COFFEE BEAN FARMER’s STRUGGLES AND THE NEED FOR FAIR TRADE
大家知道嗎？巴布亞新畿內亞的咖啡豆產業雖然只佔全球生產鏈的百分之一，只有大概巴國的整個國民產值百份之十左右，但卻有近巴國一半的人口（i.e.250萬人以上）以種植咖啡豆為生。因此當地的農民甚至有句俗語稱咖啡豆樹（i.e. Coffee tree）為搖錢樹（i.e. Money Tree）。
Fair Trade Organization），但簡單而言公平貿易對巴國的小農之協助還是存在的。其最實際的幫助當然就是作為中間人，協助小農們與有心的外商合作，條件固然要結予小農們最低的基本合理價錢，亦會提供背後如種植及顧問的服務、協助基建等等。更深一層就是能夠透過這些手段去提升邊緣農民的聲音，並就此建立出一個以平等為基礎的共同管理市場架構（democratic governance structures）。
Do you know that there is around half of the population in Papua New Guinea (i.e. over 2.5 million people) livelihood relying on the coffee bean industry? Despite the fact that the export of coffee bean in Papua New Guinea only contributed 10% or less in the PNG national income, it still feed the month of a lot of PNG farmers. As a result, farmers in PNG will usually call “Coffee Tree” as “Money Tree”.
In fact, the colonial history of PNG has not been started until the late of 19th century. Its northern is being controlled by the Germany Empire and the southern ruled by the British Empire. Thought there is a long history of agriculture in PNG, coffee bean is brought to PNG not until the early of the 20th century. The type of the coffee bean in PNG come from Jamaica, Blue Mountain Arabica.
Since the natural resources in PNG is very rich, its colonist has mainly used PNG as exporting different raw materials, such as Palm oil, rubber, oil. Besides, foods are also what the colonist needs, so they designed PNG as a farmland to grow foods for them. Therefore, until now, PNG is still depending on export of natural resources as well as agricultural products as its main income.
However, there are number of problems that small-scale farmers in PNG facing in the market globalization. They come as follow:
Coffee bean farmers are usually in small-scale, which means that they lack of resources to sell and promote their products.
Since coffee bean farmers are in small-scale production, leading to their small bargaining power against the foreign big company.
Given the fact that coffee bean farmers are usually living in the mainland, plus, it is not common for PNGers to access internet, small farmers are not exposed to the updated local and global news, the low information exposure has seriously damaged the interests of small coffee bean farmers in PNG.
More information can be found in FAIRTASTE and World Fair Trade Organization. Still, the idea of Fair Trade, which has already in progress of different area in globe, has helped the PNG farmer businesses and helping local farming cooperatives to build thriving communities. In general, three goals are waiting to be completed. Firsy and foremost, of course, is to improve the living standards of coffee bean producers with coming up a fair price, level up the voices of the marginal producers in specific commodity chains and eventually to build a democratic governance structure.
PNG in Dataportal: https://datareportal.com/reports/digital-2022-papua-new-guinea
PNG coffee production history：https://www.drivencoffee.com/blog/papua-new-guinea-coffee-origins/
PNG History: https://www.papuanewguinea.travel/history
From Modern Production to Imagined Primitive: The Social World of Coffee from Papua New Guinea. (by Paige West)
Coffee Industry In Papua New Guinea – Current Status, Prospects, Constraints, & Strategies For Sustainable Development. (by Coffee Industry Corporation Limited) 2022-07-07